The 4G telecommunication network is mostly deployed in all over the world. And its services are available in mostly countries. And 4G telecommunication network have frequency range that the network operate and then our smart devices connect with the network. In worldwide frequency range is 700 MHZ, 850 MHZ, 900 MHAZ, 1800 MHZ, 2100 MHZ, 2300 MHZ, 2600 MHZ, All countries used that range of frequencies and every country have a special authority that allow every telecom company to used that frequency range. So that company equipment is also manufactured that support allow frequency range. Every company used different band and that have some gap with other company frequency range.
The smart devices that we use in 4G network that also need to supported that frequency. So that many device that work on 3G network have no capacity to work on 4G. The reason is that devices have no frequency range configuration and supported hardware so that no support. Similarly 4G network have different requirements to work and different equipment required to operational 4G network because 3G network separate equipment supported and 4g network separate equipment supported. On physical site have 2G, 3G, and 4G have different cards and boards used that support each technology.
Antenna that provide 4G services that performance is very important in telecommunication network. Because Antenna is service provider of telecom network and in past many antenna used and for each technology different antenna used. Now many new type of antenna developed that support all technology that have different port that can use it and that have all frequency range that can used .If antenna efficiency is better than the coverage is in long areas and if antenna is not efficient and its performance is not better then it cover only small areas.
For 4G network used SDR that we say software defined radio. And software defined radio is open wireless architecture. Another form. On physical site a board is installed that we say Base band unit in which all card are installed that related to each technology. That support all technology and the base band unit have software installed that operate each technology and base band unit is mostly connected with LAN cable that connect to base station controller. Base band unit is connected with microwave links and optical fiber cable network through LAN cable. LAN cable provide the data to Base band unit and then Base band unit operate technology and some time anyone technology hardware got faulty that can replace easily as software defined technology developed optical fiber cable used for 3G and 4G network. So that network quality is much increase and network speed also increase loss rate much got down due to use of optical fiber. Also signal strength increase. As the use of 4G increase Telecom companies do addition more sector on physical sites for better performance and better coverage .